Monthly Archives: April 2018

Why Buy To Let Investors Are Buying Commercial Properties


The number of property-owners who buy to let turning to commercial properties investment has more than tripled over the last three years.

As residential landlords have been hit by several buy-to-let changes in recent years, most of these property investors are now looking to improve their portfolio by venturing into the commercial properties market. Here is a look at the key changes and their implications.

Stamp Duty

At the beginning of the year, the government declared that it was going to increase stamp duty for people buying second homes, including buy to let properties. From April this year, property owners will be required to pay an extra 3% stamp duty above the previous rates for buy to let properties.

For instance, if a property owner bought another property before the 1st of April, 2016 for five hundred thousand pounds, he would have paid 0% stamp duty on the first 12,000 pounds, 2% on the next 125,000 pounds, and 5% on the remaining 250,000 pounds, working out to 15,000 pounds in total. The new rates are 8%, 5% and 3% respectively, which doubles the tax payable on such a property to 30,000 pounds.

Wear and Tear

April 2018 also saw the enactment of the new rule, which means that landlords can now only claim for wear-and-tear costs that have physically been incurred.

Under the prior rules, property owners were permitted to deduct a yearly allowance from their taxable profits for wear-and-tear, irrespective of what was spent. Now, however, you’ll have to produce itemised receipts if you want to have these costs debited from your tax.

Capital Gains Tax

In 2016, the Chancellor declared that capital gains tax would cut in that year’s budget; however, the cut would not be applicable to property owners.

The basic capital gains tax rate has gone from 18% to 10%, while the much higher rate has dropped from 28% to 20%. Profits acquired from assets like shares and stocks are now subject to these lower tax rates; nevertheless, this does not apply to properties. Property owners, including homeowners, who sell off their properties are now effectively subject to an 8% surcharge that other asset investors will not face.

From his view, George Walker, a commercial auction partner at Allsop, a property auctioneering company, said that the market would likely start seeing a lot more investors because of these buy-to-let changes. Once an investor has bought one, they won’t believe the simplicity of the process and will likely want to invest more.

There are many options such as a warehouse for rent in Surrey or retail units in Hampshire.

Purchasing Properties Through Limited Companies

Last year alone, well over 100,000 property owners purchased properties from limited companies, with loaning to limited companies accounting for about 30% of all buy to let purchases within the first half of that year.

Experts predict that buy to let mortgages via limited companies will swell in 2018 as property owners look to avoid mortgage lending changes and heavy taxes.

Nevertheless, should the government opt to clamp down on these trends, residential property investors could end up following suit, turning their attention to commercial properties market.

Here’s what to remember if you are thinking about venturing into commercial property investment. Buy to let property owners considering investing in commercial properties should, nevertheless, do their research.

The responsibilities of residential landlords are different from those of commercial landlords, and understanding the differences is vital in ensuring that you handle your business legally.

Commercial landlord insurance is something worth considering as the endorsements, cost and policy wording of commercial policies will differ from those of residential property owners insurance policies.

The market is also different so should your expectations be as an investor – the amount of rent you earn is one of the main factors to consider when investing in commercial properties. This is in contrast to the focus of most residential landlords, which is capital growth.

Why Buy-to-let Investors Are Purchasing Commercial Properties in Record Numbers

By: Elliott Brown

Over the past three years, the number of buy-to-let landlords investing in commercial properties has tripled.

In recent times residential landlords have been hit by numerous buy-to-let changes, which has resulted in many investors searching for ways to give their portfolios a boost by venturing into the commercial property markets and targeting businesses who want to rent an office.  Below are some major changes to be discussed.

  • Stamp duty changes

The Government announced earlier this year that the stamp duty would be increased for those purchasing second homes, which included buy-to-let properties. Landlords, as of April this year, are required to pay a stamp duty surcharge of three percentage points higher than previous rates on buy-to-let homes.

For example, if prior to 1 April 2016 you purchased a second property for £500,000, the stamp duty you would have paid would be 0 percent on the initial £12,000, then 2 percent on the next £125,000 and then 5 percent on the £250,000 remaining, which adds up to £15,000 in total. However, the new respective rates are 3 percent, 5 percent, and 8 percent. This will double the tax payable amount to £30,000 on this property.

  • Wear and Tear Cost Changes

The new rule was implemented in April of this year which means landlords will only be able to claim costs of wear and tear that have been incurred.

Landlords under previous rules were allowed an annual allowance deduction for wear and wear from taxable profits, regardless of the amount that was actually spent. You will now be required to provide itemised receipts in order to deduct these costs from your taxes.

  • Capital Gains Tax

The Chancellor announced a capital gains tax as part of its 2016 budget, but the cut is not being applied to landlords.

The basic capital gains tax rate has been reduced from 18 percent down to 10 percent, with the higher rate falling from 28 percent down to 20 percent. The profits earned on assets like shares and stocks will be subject now to these lower tax rates, but this is not true for properties. Homeowners and landlords who sell property will be effectively subjected to an eight percent surcharge that won’t be faced by those who are selling other types of assets.

George Walker, a commercial auction partner with Allsop property auctioneers said that many investors are coming into the market due to the changes made to buy-to-let. After purchasing their first one, they want to do it all over again due to how simple it is.

  • Purchasing Property via a Limited Company

Over 100,000 landlords purchased properties via limited companies last year, with limited company lending accounting for 30 percent of total buy-to-let purchasing during the first half of this year.

Experts are predicting that buy-to-let mortgages via limited companies will surge in 2018, with landlords looking to avoid mortgage lending charges and heavy taxes.

However, if the government were to clamp down on these growing trends, it could cause residential investors to follow and turn their attention towards the commercial market.

  • Things to Consider About Commercial Property Investing

For those buy-to-let landlords who are considering commercial property investments, they should do their research first.

The responsibilities of residential landlords are different from those of commercial landlords, and it is critical to know what these differences are to ensure you stay compliant with the law.

Another thing that needs to be considered is commercial landlord insurance, as there are differences in the cost, endorsement, and policy wording compared to residential landlord insurance policies.

The market is also different, and so the expectations of the investor should be as well – in commercial investment rental yield tends to be a much larger factor, which many residential landlords are more concerned with capital growth.

Why Buy-to-let Investors Can’t Get Enough of Commercial Properties

By: Kevin Dooley

Over the last three years, the number of buy-to-let investors who have made the transition to commercial properties has increased by 200%.

This is primarily attributed to the many changes in the buy-to-let industry, prompting residential landlords to look into the commercial property market to diversify their portfolio. tell us more about these changes below.

  • Changes to Stamp Duty

The start of the year wasn’t the best for residential landlords, as the government announced that stamp duty will increase for those who buy second homes, which includes buy-to-let properties. As of April, landlords find themselves paying an increase of three percentage points on stamp duty compared to the previous rate.

For example, buying a property prior to April 2016, at the cost of £500,000 means paying 0% stamp duty on the first £12,000, then 2% on the next £125,000, and finally 5% on the next £250,000, for a grand total of £15,000. However, the new rates are as follows: 3%, 5%, and 8%, which means the tax payable on the property increases twofold to £30,000.

  • Wear and Tear Costs

There’s also a new rule that has been implemented this April stating that investors can only claim incurred wear and tear costs.

This is far from the previous rule which allowed landlords to deduct from their taxable profits an annual allowance for their wear and tear expenses, even those that have yet to be incurred. This means you need itemised receipts to verify the costs before being able to deduct them from your tax.

  • Capital Gains Tax

A reduction to the capital gains tax has also been announced by the Chancellor as part of the 2016 budget, although this doesn’t apply to landlords.

From the basic rate of 18%, it now stands at 10%, but the higher rate has decreased to 20% from the previous rate of 28%. Any profits gained from assets like shares and stocks can benefit from these adjusted tax rates, but gains from properties aren’t covered. Both landlords and homeowners now have to pay 8% more when selling properties, a significant disadvantage compared to investors selling other assets.

According to George Walker, a commercial property auction partner at Allsop, the changes to buy-to-let has attracted an increasing number of investors to their market. He says that one of the biggest reasons for the shift is the simplicity of owning commercial properties, convincing investors that they are the better option at least right now.

  • Buying Property Through a Limited Company

In the previous year, over 100,000 landlords purchased properties through limited companies, of which 30% are accounted for by lending to limited companies in the year’s first six months.

In 2018, experts believe that buy-to-let lending through limited companies will increase, with more and more landlords looking for ways to avoid hefty taxes and mortgage lending changes.

But if the government intervenes on this prevailing trend, residential landlords are likely to join and enter the commercial market as well.

  • What You Should Know Before Investing in Commercial Property

Doing adequate research goes a long way in helping buy-to-let landlords get acquainted with the commercial property market and prepare for their new venture.

It’s worth noting that the responsibilities of residential landlords vary greatly from those of commercial landlords, and knowing even the subtle differences enables investors to operate their business within the limitations of the law.

Another vital consideration is commercial landlord insurance, as differences in policy wording, costs, and endorsements might confuse investors and cause them to make miseducated business decisions.

Of course, the commercial property market also works differently, which means investors should realign their expectations in order to meet their goals – whereas residential landlords often focus on capital growth, commercial property investors pay closer attention to rental yield.

Why There Are Record Numbers of the Buy-to-let Investors Now Buying Commercial Properties

By: Andy Arthur

The amount of the buy-to-let landlords that have turned their attention to commercial property investments has tripled over the last 3 years.

With the residential landlords which have been hit with several buy-to-let changes over the last few years, many of the investors are in search of ways to maximize their portfolios in the way of either searching for villas for sale in Menorca or another foreign land or entering the commercial-property markets. A few of these main changes are listed below.

1. Stamp Duty

In the earlier part of the year, Government announced that it would increase stamp-duty for people who invest in 2nd homes, which includes the buy-to-let properties. By April this year, all landlords will be forced to pay stamp-duty surcharges on their buy-to-let homes, which will be a 3-percentage point over the previous rate.

If for example, if you purchased a 2nd property before the 1 April 2016, for a price of £500,000, the stamp-duty would have been 0% on the 1st £12,000, 2% on the following £125,000, and 5% of the remainder of the £250,000. The figure works out to be £15,000 in total. The latest rates work out to be 3%, 5% and 8% respectively. This means the tax payable amount would double to £30,000.

2. Wear and Tear

In April of this year, also experienced an implementation of a new rule which means that landlords are only able to claim on the wear-and-tear costs which have already been incurred.

Under previous rules, the landlords were able to deduct annual allowances from taxable profits in association to wear-and-tear, no matter what was spent. The new rules mean you now have to provide receipts that are itemised if you want these costs subtracted from your overall tax.

3. Capital Gains Tax

The Chancellor announced that a portion of the 2016 budget would include a cut to the capital gains taxes, yet these cuts are not applicable to landlords.

Basic rates for capital gains taxes has reduced from 18% to 10%, while higher rates decreased from 28% to 20%. The profits gained from the assets like shares and stocks are now subjected to the lowered tax rates, but this will not apply to properties. The landlords along with homeowners that sell properties are now subjected to an 8% surcharge that people that sell other assets will not face.

Commercial auction partner, George Walker at the property auctioneers known as Allsop stated that they have experienced a lot more investors in their market due to changes to the buy-to-let. As soon as they have purchased 1, they soon find out about the simplicity it offers and this is what encourages them to buy again.

Purchasing properties through limited companies

Over the last year, over 100,000 landlords purchased properties through the limited companies, with the lending to these limited businesses accounting for 30% of all the buy-to-let purchases within the 1st half of this year.

The experts have predicted that the buy-to-let mortgages that come through the limited companies will surge in the year 2018, as the landlords seek to avoid mortgage-lending charges and heavy taxes.

However, if the government decides to clamp-down this growing trend, the residential investors might follow the trend and start to look into the commercial markets.

What you need to consider if you are thinking about commercial property investments

  • The buy-to-let landlords that are thinking about an investment in commercial properties, need to be doing their own research.
  • The responsibilities of the residential landlords are very different to commercial landlords and knowing these differences is essential to ensure you are adhering to the laws.
  • Insurance for commercial landlords is also important, as there are differences in the wording of the policies, costs and endorsements in comparison to the residential-landlord policies.
  • The markets in itself are also different, and the investors’ expectations should also be different. The yield in rental is in most cases a larger factor when it comes to commercial investments, while the capital growths are usually the more important factor for most of the residential landlords.

12 Real Estate Marketing Tips for Selling Your Home Fast

By: Gary & Anna Sattler

The goal of listing a home in the real estate market, be it you are an estate agent or a homeowner, is to sell it in the shortest time possible and for the best price.

More often than note, the sale is fastest when it has people working as a team that pulls all stops to ensure all the bases are covered for the success of the sale. In short, it is about working with other sellers or real estate agents.

Below are the steps to take when transacting in the real estate market that can dramatically increase the odds of closing the sale as quickly as possible and with less hassle.

1. Price It Right

The price tag plays a significant role in selling a home. The wrong price can have a negative impact on every other measure taken to ensure a fast sale. Keep in mind that the correct pricing goes hand-in-hand with choosing the right estate agent. The best real estate agents have a few tricks up their sleeves that can help you determine the best price for your property.

2. Research and Interview Multiple Estate Agents

Find several reputable real estate agents in your town. Research them to narrow your options to two or three that you will interview to determine the best candidate for the job.

3. Take Your Search Online

With the digital dispensation, it makes little or no sense for season experts in various industries not to have an online presence. The best plays in the real estate market will strive to have a top-notch website as part of their marketing arsenal.

4. Get References

You can get several reputable references from colleagues, neighbours, and relatives who have worked with an excellent real estate agent.

5. Find Out the Estate Agent’s Track Record

Does the estate agent you pick sell all the home they list and how fast? Also, what is the price regarding the listing and sale ration? The answers to these questions will help you know if you are dealing with one of the best agents in the business.

6. How Does the Estate Agent Market Properties?

The objective is to know the various marketing strategies the real estate agent will use for your home, be it online or offline. External resources and services offered by professional property marketing providers like floorplansUsketch are highly effective methods which all estate agents should incorporate in their strategy.

7. Look at the Listing Descriptions

Check out the descriptions the estate agent used when listing your home. They should be well done and have a marketable illustration of your property.

8. Exquisite Photo of the Home

Buyers want some image of the properties they find interesting thus you should take high-resolution pictures of your home from different angles. Clear images significantly increase the chances of a sale. Consider taking aerial photos that also show the neighbourhood; you can use a drone for this.

9. A Video Tour Helps

A video showcasing the interior of the house as well as the outdoor space can be a tool with high convincing power. It can be done as a slideshow with short but concise narratives of every section of the home. The video will be an inexpensive but highly effective marketing resource if you are keen on making a quick sale.

10. Make Use of Social Media

Much of this should be done by the estate agent though you also can help things along if you market your property on your social media accounts. You will significantly extend the reach thus increasing the number of potential buyers.

11. Create an Exceptional Brochure

The marketing strategy should include the use of outstanding marketing material. Avoid working with real estate agents who are comfortable with black and white multi-listing sheet. The best player in the real estate marketing industry knows the power behind colourful prints such as brochures.

12. Use Professional Mailings

Regarding the use of print marketing, the use of postcards can be an efficient addition to the marketing antics employed by the estate agent to get the word out.

From the above information, it is evident that the quick sale of a home and at the best price is a combination of having the best real estate agent and getting it right with the marketing right from the start.

Real Estate Marketing Tips to Help You Sell a Property Much Faster

By: Elliott Brown

Be it you are a homeowner or a real estate agent, your main aim when putting up a property for sale normally is for it to sell within the shortest time possible and for the most cash with the least aggravation.

Sellers and real estate agents need to work together as a team, most of the time, to get the task done. One of the most effective ways to sell a property is to ensure that you all the bases are covered.

In this list, you’ll see all the steps you will need to take to have successful real estate transactions. By following our advice, you should be able to see your odds of sitting at closing tables in a timely manner increase ten-fold.

  • Price the Home Right

Pricing is by far the most important marketing tip when it comes to selling a home. Without the right pricing, the rest of the tips provided here will be a waste! The agent you hire and the price you set go hand in hand – and the good thing is that professional agents know all about home pricing which is why it is ideal to hire a professional real estate agent.

  • Interview Multiple Agents

Choosing the right agent is crucial. It’s very easy to go for a shady real estate agent, and that is why you are advised to not take the process of selecting an agent lightly.

  • Ensure the Agent Has a Great Website

Being in the 21st century, it is vital that the estate agent you choose has a kick-ass website that is well designed and which showcases their listings.

  • Find Out More About the Agent’s Track Record

Does the estate agent sell all the homes they’ve listed? What’s their listing price to sale price ratio? How many days do the homes they list stay on the market?

  • Get References

Take the time to find out what other people who’ve worked with the agent have to say about his services. Make sure that all your references aren’t hand-picked.

  • Seek to Know Their Marketing Strategies

Get a good, clear understanding of how your property will be marketed both offline and online. Look at what they’re already doing for already existing clients.

  • Look at Their Listing Descriptions

Peek at their listing description to see how they describe homes they’re marketing. Are they well done? Do they create a floor plan and include it in the listing as additional materials that could enhance the property listing?

  • Make Sure Photos on Their Site Are Exceptional

It’s common knowledge that home photos play a major role when it comes to property marketing. Photography is, without a doubt, one of the key marketing techniques when it comes to selling a home.

  • Provide a Video Tour

Does the agency use videos to showcases properties they are listing? Video has become quite popular as a property marketing tool.
Slideshow presentation – if the video is king, then slideshow presentation is the queen. Slideshows are an inexpensive way to market a property if you do not have the budget to have an expensive video made.

  • Use a Drone

Drones are the trend right now so why not take advantage of drone photography to showcase your property, neighbourhood, or lot?

  • Use Social Media

Estate agents who can market through social media can make a huge impact through their marketing efforts. Social media offers an extended reach considering that most of the people use smartphones and are often participants in one or two major social platforms.

  • Create Outstanding Brochures

When selling a home, having professional marketing material is vital. Kick any estate agent who uses white and black multiple-listing sheets as marketing materials to curb right now. The best agents will provide colour brochures printed on nice, quality stock.

  • Use Professional Mailings

Sending just-listed postcards will allow you to reach an audience that could help you sell your home. Against popular belief, print marketing isn’t dead. Postcards have proven to very effective real estate marketing tools, especially when it comes to getting the word out.

For a more comprehensive look into the above marketing tips, click the linked article above. Take your time to read through all the tips covered in the article, and follow the advice provided.

Fashion Business Writing Tips


Judith C. Everett and Kristen K. Swanson, who wrote Writing for the Fashion Business, have some tips to share for those who write for the fashion industry. In this article, we will be taking a close look at the writing process for articles such as fashion trends and plus size news and sharing some valuable writing tips.

Creativity and structure are needed in order to write effective fashion message. Mandell and Kirszner provide a six-stage structure of the overall writing process.

  1. Planning – consider the tone, audience, and purpose; select a topic; find ideas to write your piece of content about.
  2. Shaping – Determine how the material will be organised.
  3. Drafting – Write your first draft.
  4. Revising – “re-see” what you wrote; written the second draft.
  5. Editing – Chech mechanics, punctuation, spelling, and grammar.
  6. Proofreading – Check for any typographical errors.

Purpose and Planning

Great writing has been designed to have a specific tone, audience, and purpose in mind. To begin a piece of writing, the best thing to do is to select a topic and then conduct research to determine how to write about it. As you are reading and learning about the topic, you need to consider what you would like to say regarding the subject. As the writer, you need to clearly understand the topic before you can effectively communicate it to readers.

As you begin to think logically about your topic, you will start identifying your purpose statement or central idea. When you write a purpose statement it results in you determine exactly what you are writing about and the type of response you would like to get from your audience. Your purpose statement may become the outline’s lead-in sentence or just the first couple of words of your article. Your purpose statement may be direct, start with the purpose, or it may be more indirect, and draw the reader into your subject by using an attention-getting statement before the purpose statement.


Writing is all done for a specific audience. The particular viewers or readers that are being targeted by a piece of writing is its audience. According to Eakins (2005), the following four questions should be answered by the writer when they are profiling their audience:

  • Who will be reading the message?
  • How much do readers know about the topic?
  • What is the specific relationship between the writer and readers?
  • What is the audience’s reading style?

Who will be reading the message?

Be very specific about who the actual readers are. Imagine them in as you are sitting down to write. Although you might not know your readers’ names, you can create a general overall profile of them. This profile may include all or some of these characteristics: reader’s expectations, rapport with readers, the reader’s needs, culture, occupational background, education, and age. Your messages should always be tailored to meet your audience’s needs.

How much do readers know about the topic?

To make a connection with your audience, it is essential for you to understand how familiar they are with the subject. Audiences range from having high levels of understanding to knowing very little about a topic. You need to determine where your audience is, and then write your content to that level.

What is the specific relationship between the writer and readers?

Various fashion messages portray diverse relationships between an audience and writer. This is illustrated quite clearly by television show hosts when they talk to their audience like they were their long-time friends. When addressing their audience they use a conversational approach. However, a very different relationship is portrayed by a letter informing stockholders of an annual meeting. Although stockholders to have a vested interest in a company, frequently the writer doesn’t know them.

What is the audience’s reading style?

Not all pieces of writing are read in the same way. A reader might read slowly when reading a fiction piece, and absorb every word while becoming immersed in the story’s plot. However, this same reader might quickly read an online newspaper’s headlines, just to get the highlights.

If you are writing an article where you expect that the reader will be searching, skimming or scanning, state your message’s purpose very directly in the heading or the first sentence in the first paragraph. Write in a concise manner so that your readers can search for and locate the information they are looking for effectively and efficiently.

13 Top Tips to Sell a Property With Real Estate Marketing

By: Tim Green

Regardless of whether you are a homeowner or an agent, most people will want to sell a property as quickly as possible once they put it on the market. The goal is usually to get the best price with the fewest issues. Doing this usually requires that the seller and an agent work together to get things done right.

Doing all the right things is the best way of getting the house sold fast and for a good price. Here we’ll take a look at the steps you will want to take to ensure a successful home sale. When you follow these tips you will greatly increase the chances of getting a qualified buyer too close quickly.

1. Choosing the Right Asking Price

This is first and perhaps the most crucial tip on selling your home. If you don’t get this part right it makes the other tips more difficult to achieve. Having a good agent to work with will greatly improve the chances that you’ll understand what your asking price should be. A good agent will know how to determine what price will be attractive to buyers.

2. Professional Photographs

Photographs of the home will be one of the primary things used to get a buyer’s interest. Getting professionally enhanced photos is paramount to effective marketing.

3. Meet With Multiple Estate Agents

Having a great agent will play a pivotal role in your success. Bad agents abound and for this reason, you need to take the process of selecting a good one seriously.

4. They Should Have a Great Website

In this day and age, it is important to have a digital presence. The site should look professional and it should highlight all of the agent’s listings.

5. Check the Agents’ Track Record

Does the agent successfully sell their listings? What kind of price do they get compared to what their listings asked for? How many days does their listing stay on the market before they sell?

6. Check Their References

One of the best ways to determine how well an agent will do for you is to see how others feel about that agent. Try to make sure the references aren’t just handpicked by the agent.

7. How Do They Plan to Market Your Property?

The agent should be able to clearly identify how they plan to market your property online and offline. Make sure to check how they’re marketing their other listings and how well those marketing methods are working.

8. Descriptions

Take a look at other listings and see the types of descriptions they give for those homes. Determine if you feel the descriptions are accurate and promote the home well.


9. Have a Video Tour on the Website

Make sure the agent uses video walkthroughs on their website to promote your home. This is one of the newer but highly effective marketing methods available today. Slideshow presentations or very effective. This means even when there’s not enough money for other types of videos, you still have an inexpensive way to effectively promote the sale of the house.

10. Drone Footage

This is another of the more modern marketing methods. Using this method you can show all your neighbourhood and surrounding homes.

11. Social Media Campaigns

Agents who know how to run an effective social media campaign often have the greatest success with selling their listings. A high percentage of people participate on a daily basis with one social media platform or another and with the use of mobile devices it’s an easy way to
promote a home.

12. Professional Brochure

It is just as important with the sale of a home as with any product that professional marketing material be used. If the agent you are interviewing uses a plain black and white sheet with multiple listings for marketing material then you should kick them to the curb. The agent should use brochures that are printed on quality stock and are in full colour.

13. Professional Mailings

When the agent sends out postcards they often reach an audience that can help to sell the home. Don’t be fooled into believing that print marketing is dead. Postcard mailings continue to be an effective part of real estate marketing and greatly helps to get the word out about the new listing.

You can find these and other marketing tips explained in further detail by following the link. It’s recommended you take enough time to read through each tip to understand how to best sell your home. Those who follow the advice given here are highly likely to get a good result.

Tips for Writing for the Fashion Business

By: P K

Writing for the fashion business is something that many people consider, but do not know where to start.  Fortunately, the authors of Writing for the Fashion Business have shared some of their tips.  These tips will look at the writing process and what you need to do.

As writing fashion messages need creativity and structure, the authors have outlined 6 stages of the writing process.

  1. Planning – considering the purpose, tone and audience then choosing a topic and discovering ideas to write about.
  2. Shaping – Determining how to organise the content.
  3. Drafting – Creating the first draft of the content.
  4. Revising – Relooking at what is written and writing additional drafts.
  5. Editing – Checking grammar, punctuation, spelling and mechanics.
  6. Proofreading – Checking for any typographical errors.

Planning and Purpose

Any good piece of writing will have a specific purpose, tone and audience in mind.  The best way to start a piece of writing is to have a topic in mind and research this to determine how you are going to write about it.  As you learn and read more about the topic, you have to consider what you want to say about this.  As the writer, you need to have a clear understanding of the topic before you are able to communicate it to your audience.
You also need to think logically about the topic and determine what the central idea or purpose statement will be.  Creating a purpose statement will help you determine why you are writing and the response that you want from the audience.  A purpose statement could be the first few words of the document or the lead-in sentence for the outline.  The purpose statement could be direct, starting with the purpose, or indirect which draws the reader into the topic using attention-grabbing statements ahead of it.

The Audience

Every piece of writing is done with an audience in mind.  The group of people that your fashion piece is going to be targeting will be your audience.  In order to profile your audience, the authors believe that you should answer 4 questions.

  1. Who will be reading the content?
  2. What will these readers know about the subject?
  3. What is the relationship between you, the writer, and the audience?
  4. What is the audience reading style?

Who Will Read the Content?

You need to be specific about who the actual readers are.  You should picture them in your mind as you compose.  While you cannot give your readers a specific name, you will be able to create a general profile.  The profile could include the age of the reader, their education level, the needs of the reader, their occupation, their culture, the rapport you have with them and the expectations they have.  Your messages should all be tailored to your audience.  Many online information forums now have write for us pages, where you can send in articles for them to publish.

What Do the Readers Know About the Subject?

If you want to connect with your readers, you need to be aware of how much they know about the topic.  An audience can range from having little knowledge to a very high level of understanding.  It is important that you find out where your audience fits and ensure you write to their level.

What Is the Relationship?

The diverse relationships between reader and writer can be illustrated in different fashion messages.  This can easily be seen with TV hosts as they speak to their audience in the same manner as talking to a long-time friend.  They generally take a conversational approach when addressing the audience.  However, when you write a letter to stockholders regarding an annual meeting, you will have a different relationship.  While the stockholder will have an interest in the company, they will generally be strangers to the writer.

What Is the Audience Reading Style?

All content will not be read in the same manner and it is important to know this.  When reading a piece of fiction, the reader will generally take a slow approach to ensure they absorb every word and are able to immerse themselves in the plot.  However, the headlines of an online newspaper will generally be read quickly so only the highlights are captured.

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Reasons Many Landlords Are Investing in Commercial Properties

By: oatsy40

According to research, the number of landlords investing in commercial properties has tripled over the past few years. This could be as a result of the buy-to-let changes implemented in recent times, and with the landlords looking for better ways to invest their money. Discussed below by Curchod & Co are some of the changes that may have triggered the mass exodus from residential properties to commercial property investment.

1. Stamp Duty

The Government announced earlier this year that it would be charging more in stamp duty for those buying properties-to-let and second homes. Beginning April, all landlords have been forced to pay a tax surcharge on second homes and buy-to-let homes. The landlords, therefore, have to pay 3% more in stamp duty.

Here is an example to help you understand this. Anyone that bought a second home/property (worth ‘500,000) before April 2016 paid 0% tax on the first ‘12,000, then 2% on the next ‘125,000, 5% on the ‘250,000 remaining. This means the landlord only paid ‘15,000 in stamp duty. The new rates as of 1 April 2016, however, are at 3, 5, and 8% respectively. This doubles the initial stamp duty to ‘30,000.

2. Wear and Tear

As of April 2016, landlords are only able to claim for costs incurred in wear and tear. This provision was implemented the same time as the stamp duty surcharge for second homes. This is unlike in previous times where landlords were allowed annual tax relief for damages incurred in the house/property. Landlords are therefore required to provide itemized receipts of expenses incurred when handling repairs on your property, costs that are deducted from the taxable profits.

3. Capital Gains Tax

Although the Chancellor announced relief in capital gains (in the 2016 budget), the relief doesn’t cover landlords.

This is to say, capital gains from assets such as shares and stocks have gone down from 18% to 10 percent, with the highest rates falling even farther from 28 to 20%. The fact that tax capital gains don’t cover landlords is one of the reasons more, and more landlords are leaving the residential sector and investing in the lucrative commercial properties sector. This, however, doesn’t mean they won’t have to pay the 8% surcharge.

According to George Walker (a commercial auction partner), the move by landlords to move to the industrial sector is directly linked to the changes implemented on buy-to-let properties.

4. Lending Properties to Limited Companies

Buy-to-let mortgages have been on the rise over the recent six months. This has been attributed to the significant number of landlords (at least 100,000 of them) buying second properties through limited companies. Studies show that buy-to-let properties through limited companies have risen by a whopping 30% in the first half of the year. Experts predict that these numbers will increase by the end of 2018 as more and more landlords look for ways to avoid mortgage lending and massive tax charges.

If the government does not clamp down on these trends, more investors could switch to the commercial market to make more money.

Factors to Consider If Planning To Invest In the Commercial Property Market

Do thorough research on the commercial property market before diving into the same. This is because responsibilities involved with residential properties greatly differ from commercial properties. You will want to understand this to avoid breaking the law.

You also need to consider commercial property insurance when making the switch. The cost of commercial property insurance premiums is likely to be much higher than with residential properties.

Commercial and residential markets differ a lot in many dimensions. Rental yield may be higher in commercial properties, while capital growth is more significant with residential properties. Be sure to weigh your options, advantages, and disadvantages before crossing over to the commercial property sector.